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The Koch Kingdom was a state situated between the Mughal Empire and the Ahom Kingdom. For the Ahom Kingdom, it was an important buffer state for keeping Mughal imperialist expansions at bay. Things began to change when the erstwhile ruler of the Koch Kingdom, Nara Narayana died in 1587. As a result, the Koch kingdom was divided into two – the western Koch Bihar rule by his son Lakshmi Narayan and the eastern Koch Hajo rule by his nephew, Raghudev Lakshmi Narayan formed an alliance with the Mughal Empire, following which the governor of Bengal, assistance attacked Parikshit Narayan, son of Raghudev at Dhubri in 1602. Following a series of battles, Parikshit Narayan was defeated but his brother Bali Narayana took refuge in the Ahom Kingdom.

The Mughals would use it as a pretext to invade the Ahom Kingdom. The first battle between them would take place in 1615 leading to a series of engagements that would see the result in different fortunes between the two parties until the treaty of Asurar Ali in 1639 which fixed Barnadi river (north) and Asurar Ali (south) as the boundary between the Ahoms and the Mughals. This would result in the Mughal administration of at Kamrup.

Upon the ascension of Aurangazeb on the Mughal throne on July 31st 1658, he tasked Mir Jhumla II with the conquest of the entire region of Assam in 1660. Marching in 1661, he defeated the Ahoms in several battles that eventually culminated in the occupation of the Ahom capital of Garhgaon. But the incessant guerilla warfare and the torrential rains welling up the rivers meant that Mir Jhumla could not consolidate his rule and was pondering to whether abandon his recent gains. Unfortunately, Jayadhwaj Singha – ruler of the Ahom Kingdom – was unaware of this and sued for peace. Mir Jhumla seized on this opportunity and the result was the Treaty of Ghilajharighat in 1663. But the terms of the treaty were harsh enough for the Ahoms to become determined in their resolve to permanently end Mughal presence in the region.

Jayadhwaj Singha would die of despair after signing the treaty, but he would extol his cousin and successor, Chakradhwaj Singha to avenge the humiliation of defeat. Upon becoming king Chakradwaj Singha set about in reforming the Ahom army, making alliances with other kingdoms in the region and constructing new forts in the strategic corners of the kingdom in order to prepare for another war with the Mughals. The man he chose to lead his new army would be Lachit Borphukan.

Mughals made diplomatic overtures to the kingdom to accept vassalage under their empire but they were rebuffed. Lachit soon marched with a reformed Ahom army to towards Guwahati. By taking over the five choukies that defended Guhawati, Lachit wrested control of the entire region from the Mughals.

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